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! 5 SEPTEMBER 1 984
Major BILL STEALEY,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2. Loading Instructions
3. Computer Chart
5. Authentication Codes
F-15 FLIGHT MANUAL
1 . Aircraft and Systems
2. Flying the F-15
3. Air Combat
©Copyright 1984 by MicroProse Software.
10616 Beaver Dam Road, Hunt Valley MD 21030 (301) 667-1151
Original Software by Sid Meier,
C-64 Version by Grant Irani
Documentation Contributions by Paul Fiduccia
I. PROGRAM MANUAL
Air combat has advanced dramatically in speed, technological sophis-
tication and complexity in a few short decades to the age of today's
supersonic jet fighter. The modern fighter pilot must not only demon-
strate the traditional combat flying skills, he must also master offensive
and defensive weapons systems, energy management, navigation, and
fuel conservation. Fortunately, the pilot is assisted by an impressive
array of computer-controlled information displays. The "Heads-Up-
Display" projects target and threat tracking information, navigational
cues, and status messages directly onto the plane's windscreen.
A graphic weapons status display provides instant, easy to read infor-
mation as to the availability of missiles and bombs. A variable resolution
radar, combined with radar and infra-red emission detectors displays
the location of all active threats. A ground map and navigation cursor
tells the pilot where he is and guides him to the selected target. But in
spite of these sophisticated aids, the pilot is still the most important
system in the aircraft; his ability in selecting the appropriate offensive
weapons and defensive countermeasures, his judgement in selecting
the optimal flight path to and from the target, hisskill at piloting the plane
in high speed aerial dogfights, and his courage in pressing on through
concentrated enemy defenses remain the keys to success,
F-15 if a faithful simulation of the high-tech F-1 5 all weather air
superiority and ground attack fighter, including all major flight,
weapons, and information systems. F-1 5 also simulates the modern
air.combat environment with numerous enemy aircraft, radar guided
missiles, infra-red missiles, air-air missiles, and ground targets. F-15
puts you in the cockpit of the world's most advanced fighter airplane
to plan your strategy and make the critical split-second decisions which
spell the difference between success or failure! Good Luck.
This Flight Manual provides a wealth of detail on the F-15, its flight
and weapons systems, aircraft performance, and modern air combat
tactics. You may wish to skip some of these sections and proceed as
quickly as possible to flying the simulation. In this case, you should
review the following sections:
\2 LOADING THE SIMULATION
1.3 COMPUTER CHART
IS AUTHENTICATION CODES
11.1.4 CONTROL STICK
II.2.2 MISSION PROCEDURES
2.0 LOADING THE SIMULATION
2.1 COMMODORE 64
Note only one Joystick is used in the Commodore 64 version.
The Joystick should be placed in joystick port #2 (nearest the back
of the computer).
DISK: Place the program diskette in your disk drive. Type: LOAD
"*", 8, 1. The program will boot automatically. Leave the disk in the drive.
CASSETTE: Place the program cassette in your program recorder
(rewind if necessary). Press RUN/STOP while holding down the
"COMMODORE" key. Press PLAY on the cassette recorder. Loading
requires at least 10 minutes.
Note that only one joystick is used in the Apple version.
DISK: Place the program diskette in your disk drive and turn on
your computer. The program will boot automatically. Leave the disk
in the drive.
CASSETTE: Not available.
2.3 ATARI 400/800/1200/600XL/800XL
REQUIRES: 48K RAM, 1 or 2 joysticks.
REMOVE: All cartridges.
DISK: Place the program diskette in your disk drive and turn on
your computer. The program will boot automatically. Leave the disk
in the drive.
CASSETTE: Place the program cassette in your cassette recorder.
(Rewind if necessary) Press START and power the computer on.
Depress PLAY on the cassette recorder and hit the RETURN key.
The program will load automatically and start after 6-8 minutes.
3.0 COMPUTER CHART
F-15 Strike Eagle is available for the Commodore 64, Apple, and
Atari computers. To accommodate the differences in keyboards,
the following convention is used.
4.1 SKILL LEVEL
This simulation has four skill levels: ARCADE, ROOKIE, PILOT, and
ACE. The ARCADE level does not faithfully simulate flight because the
ai rcraft does not roll. It provides an introduction to the aircraft's systems
for those with no prior flying experience.
As you progress from ROOKIE to ACE, it is more difficult to destroy
both enemy aircraft and ground targets and there are more numerous
and effective enemy aircraft and ground launched missiles that seek
to destroy your aircraft. The skill level may be changed by use of the
The simulation contains seven missions. Once you have successfully
completed one mission, you may fly the next mission, which is more
challenging. To complete a mission you must destroy all primary targets
and return to your base. You may return to base before destroying all
targets in order to refuel, repair damage, and reload weapons. The later
missions are more challenging because they have more targets and
more capable enemy aircraft and SAMs. To select your initial mission
type a number from 1 to 7 (Apple: A-G). If you don't enter a mission
number you will begin at Mission 1 (Libya). You may select a mission
only at the beginning of the game. When you complete the mission
you are automatically advanced to the next mission.
Up to four players may participate. Use the "SELECT" key to choosethe
number of pilots. In multi-player games, each pilot's turn consists of
one mission. Note that if a pilot returns to base without completing the
mission or bails out and is rescued, the same pilot continues to play.
The aircraft symbol after each pilot's score indicates which pilots are
Two players may also play simultaneously, with one using the joystick
to take the role of pilot and the otherthe role of weapons systems officer
at the keyboard.
After option selection is completed, press "START" or the joystick
trigger to begin the simulation.
5.0 AUTHENTICATION CODES
At the start of the simulation, you will be asked to enter your secret F-15
authentication code. It is important to enter the correct code in order to
gain access to all flight and weapons systems. Consult the Authenti-
cation Code charts in this manual and type thecountercode letter which
matches the number displayed. (Example: if you have an Atari computer
and the programs ask you to "Authenticate (1 )", you type "A")
I TOP SECRET]
II.F-15 STRIKE EAGLE FLIGHT MANUAL
1.0 AIRCRAFT AND SYSTEMS
1.1. F-15 STRIKE EAGLE SPECIFICATIONS
TYPE: Single-seat, all-weather, air superiority and ground attack
DIMENSIONS: Wing span 42 feet; length 63 feet; height 18 feet.
ENGINES: Two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 turbofans each rated
at 14,375 pounds thrust unaugmented, 23,930 pounds with afterburner.
FUEL CAPACITY: 13,455 pounds internal, 11,895 pounds in external
MAXIMUM LEVEL SPEED: 1440 knots at 36,000 feet, Mach 2.5+;
800 knots at sea level, Mach 1.2.
STALL SPEED, LEVEL FLIGHT: 100 knots.
INITIAL CLIMB RATE: Over 50,000 feet per minute.
SERVICE CEILING: 62,000 feet.
COMBAT RADIUS: 1000 miles.
DESIGN G LIMITS: +7.33/-3.0.
FUEL CONSUMPTION: 0.7 pounds of fuel per hour per pound of thrust.
1.1 .3. TARGET/THREAT DETECTION
RADAR: Hughes APG-63 X-band pulse-doppler, providing long range
detection and tracking of targets at all altitudes.
WEAPONS CONTROL: Radar data and weapons status processed
by computer and displayed on a Heads-Up-Display (HUD) and other
TACTICAL ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEM (TEWS): Radar
Warning Receiver (RWR), Infra-red Warning Receiver (IRWR),
Westinghouse ALQ-119 (V) active radar jammer, chaff dispenser,
GUN: M-61 A1 six-barrel 20mm rotary cannon firing 6000 rounds per
minute; 1000 rounds of ammunition.
MISSILES: AIM-9L Sidewinders (four). Short range (effective range
1000 feet to 10 miles), Mach 3.0, all-aspect (able to home on airframe
heat from any angle) passive infra-red (heatseeking).AIM-7F Sparrows
(four). Medium range (maximum range 62 miles, optimum range
30 miles), Mach 4.0, all-weather, semi-active radar homing.
BOMBS: Six groups of three bombs each (18 bombs), 500 pound,
MK-82 low-drag, general purpose.
1.2 F-15 STRIKE EAGLE COCKPIT DISPLAYS
The F-15 STRIKE EAGLE cockpit is a complex and stressful working
environment. Aircraft designers make special efforts to help reduce the
load on the pilot to make him more effective in combat and improve his
chances for survival. This simulation provides you many of the same
devices provided the real F-15 pilot. (See center illustration)
1.2.1. FORWARD AND REAR VIEW
You may select the view rearward by pressing the space bar, and return
to the view forward by pressing the space bar again. The forward view
includes the HEADS-UP-DISPLAY and the instrument panel. The rear
view is only of the sky, the ground or sea surface, and any other aircraft
or missiles. When over ground, the surface is green; when over water
it is blue.
1.2.2. HEADS-UP-DISPLAY (HUD)
The following essential flight and aircraft systems information is
projected on a glass plate in the pilot's forward line of sight directly
above the instrument panel.
AIRSPEED: "SPD:600" indicates that you are flying at 600 knots.
A knot is one nautical mile per hour (100 knots equals approximately
115 miles per hour).
ALTITUDE: "ALT:9000" indicates that you are flying 9000 feet above
AIRCRAFT LINE OF FLIGHT: A circle containing an AIRCRAFT
SYMBOL is in the center of the HUD. It displays the line of flight of your
aircraft. Your guns will shoot to the aircraft's line of flight and the cannon
shells will converge on the AIRCRAFT SYMBOL.
AIR-TO-AIR RETICLE: The stationary reticle surrounding the
AIRCRAFT SYMBOL is used for aiming the guns and missiles. For the
highest probability of hits with the guns, get directly behind the enemy
aircraft with his wing span filling the aiming circle. If the enemy aircraft
isflying at an angletoyourlineofflight.you must lead the enemy aircraft
by aiming in front of it to allow for your weapons time of flight: for a 45
degree deflection shot, lead by one aiming circle radius; for a 90 degree
deflection shot, lead by two aiming circle radii.
AIR-TO-GROUND RETICLE and LINE OF IMPACT: The smaller
flashing/moving reticle that appears when you are in the BOMB mode
indicates the projected impact point of the bombs. The line that con-
nects the AIR-TO-GROUND RETICLE to the AIRCRAFT SYMBOL
is the LINE OF IMPACT. It displays the line along which the bombs
could impact by changing the pitch of the aircraft. By placing the target
on the LINE OF IMPACT by turning, you can roll level and then place
the AIR-TO-GROUND RETICLE on the target by pitching upordown.
PITCH LINES: The horizontal lines indicate how many degrees your
aircraft is pitched upordown. When the horizon is on the longest pitch
line, the one that is level with the aircraft symbol, you are in level flight.
Each pitch line represents 1 degrees. When you are diving to line-up
with a ground target, you should be in a30 degree dive, and the horizon
should be on the third line above the aircraft symbol.
TARGET DESIGNATOR BOX: The TARGET DESIGNATOR BOX
indicates the position of an enemy aircraft that has been detected by
the search and tracking radar or by your radar or infra-red warning
receiver. The TARGET DESIGNATOR BOX aids you in planning and
positioning yourself for an attack before the target is within visual range.
When the enemy aircraft is within visual range, it will appear inside this
box. When you have selected either the MEDIUM RANGE MISSILE
or the SHORT RANGE MISSILE mode, the letter "M" will appear in the
TARGET DESIGNATOR BOX to show that a missile is armed.
MISSILE DESIGNATOR BOX: The MISSILE DESIGNATOR BOX
indicates the position of air or ground launched missiles. It aids you
in evading missiles launched against you which are small and therefore
difficult to see.
STEERING CUE: The flashing letters "NAV" indicates the direction
of flight corresponding to the location of the NAVIGATION CURSOR
on the HORIZONTAL SITUATION DISPLAY. By flying to this indicator,
you will fly toward the area on the map under the NAVIGATION
In addition to the information that is always displayed in the HUD, the
following messages may be flashed in the lower left corner of the HUD:
WEAPONS SYSTEM MODES:
"GUN 900" indicates that you are in the GUN mode and that you have
900 rounds remaining. In the GUN mode, when you press the trigger
on the control stick, you fire a burst of 25 shells.
"MISSILE ARMED" indicates that you have armed either a SHORT
RANGE MISSILE or a MEDIUM RANGE MISSILE. In a missile mode,
when you press the trigger on the control stick, you fire the type of
missile that you armed.
"BOMB ARMED" indicates that you have armed a "stick" of three
500 pound bombs. In the BOMB mode, when you press the trigger
on the control stick, you release the "stick".
"ENEMY PLANE HIT" indicates that you have achieved a lethal hit
by cannon shells or missiles on an enemy aircraft.
"BOMBS RELEASED" indicates that the stick of bombs has been
released and that you may pull up or take evasive action.
"BOMBS MISS" indicates that you have missed your ground target.
"TARGET HIT" indicates that you have destroyed the ground target.
"ALERT: SAM LAUNCH" indicates that a surface-to-air missile
(SAM) has been launched against your aircraft.
"DAMAGE WARNING" indicates thatyour aircraft has been damaged
by a missile.
"ALERT: AIR MISSILE" indicates that an air-to-air heatseeking
missile has been launched against your aircraft.
"LONG, MEDIUM, SHORT RANGE RADAR" indicates what scale
your RADAR-ELECTRONIC WARNING DISPLAY is on. The short
range scale displays an area of 400 square miles (10 miles in each
direction from the aircraft), the long range scale displays an area of
1600 square miles (40 miles in each direction).
"ECM JAMMING" indicates that your electronic countermeasure
active radar jamming device is operating and that you have released
"chaff" to decoy ground launched radar homing missiles.
"FLARE RELEASED" indicates that you havereleasedaflaretodecoy
ff the aircraft is approaching the maximum "red line" speed, the top of
the HUD (Atari) or the screen border (C-64) flashes red to warn you
to immediately reduce your airspeed by pulling back on the throttle,
extend your speedbrakes, pull up, or any combination to reduce your
speed and prevent pulling the wings off your aircraft at Vmax.
1.2.5. INSTRUMENT PANEL
Additional information is displayed on the aircraft's instrument panel.
MACH NUMBER: "Mach: .9" indicates that you are flying at .9 (90%)
of the speed of sound (661 knots at sea level, decreasing with altitude).
Note that the decimal point is not displayed.
HEADING: "HDG:1 80" indicates that you are flying on a heading
of 180 degrees (south).
ENGINE POWER: "RPM: 90" indicates that your engines are at
90 percent of maximum RPM. "AFT" indicates that your afterburners
are engaged, giving you approximately 60 percent more thrust than at
100 percent RPM.
FUEL REMAINING: "FUEL: 20000 LBS" indicates that you have
20,000 pounds of fuel remaining (one gallon of jet fuel weights approxi-
mately six pounds). Fuel capacity is 13,500 pounds in on board tanks
and 10,000 in external tanks. Fuel consumption depends on engine
power, with afterburners consuming fuel at about a 60 percent higher
rate than at the 100% RPM level.
WARNING INDICATORS: There are four warning indicator lights:
the first indicates that you are being tracked by radar and the target of
a radar homing missile; the second indicates thatyour infra-red warning
system has detected an intense heat source such as that produced by
a missile; the third indicates that you are at a low altitude (below 6000
feet); and the fourth indicates that your fuel remaining is low (less than
5000 pounds) and you should begin to return to base.
1.2.6. WARNING HORNS
In addition to visual information, there are two warning horns which
indicate impending contact with the ground (based on altitude and rate
of descent) PULL UP IMMEDIATELY!; or approach to stall speed
(based on airspeed and bank angle) apply more power.
1.2.7. HORIZONTAL SITUATION
The HSD displays a mapofthearea over which the mission isto be flown.
It depicts the primary target or targets, secondary targets, which are
airfields and surface-to-air missile sites, your base, and geographic
features such as rivers and coast lines.
Your aircraft's position and direction of flight are indicated by the
position and orientation of the flashing aircraft symbol.
The NAVIGATION CURSOR is tied into your aircraft's inertial navi-
gation system. By comparing the position of your aircraft to the position
of the cursor on the HSD, the direction you would have to fly to arrive
at the area on the HSD underthe cursor iscalculated and the STEERING
CUE is displayed in the HUD in the appropriate place. By steering
toward the "N AV" cue, your aircraft will fly toward the area under the
cursor. The NAVIGATION CURSOR is moved by pressing the cursor
control keys (see Computer Chart).
1.2.8. RADAR-ELECTRONIC WARFARE DISPLAY
The REWD displays targets in the airspaceand on the ground surround-
ing your aircraft. You can change the scaleby pressing the"R" key. Each
grid line represents 10 miles. Your aircraft is always in the center of the
display pointing up. The REWD displays the returns from your radar,
from your Radar Warning Receiver (RWR, which alerts you that a
ground-based or airborne radar is tracking your aircraft), and from your
Infra-red Warning Receiver (IRWR, which alerts you that a surface-
to-air or an air-to-air missile has been launched) is also displayed.
The position and direction of enemy aircraft are shown. They are dis-
played if they are detected by your search and tracking radar, by your
Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) which detects other aircraft's radar
emissions, or by your Infra-red Warning Receiver (IWR) which detects
the heat of other aircraft's engines. Primary ground targets are depicted
as well as airports, surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites, and your base.
1.2.9. WEAPONS STATUS DISPLAY (WSD)
The WSD provides the combat pilot with a quick visual reference of his
available weapons stores. It displays all remaining three bomb "sticks"
of bombs, medium range missiles, short range missiles, flares, and the
status of the fuel drop tanks.
o s^in-n^e (TOP SECRET
.3. CONTROLS % - J
1.3.1. UP FRONT CONTROL (UFC)
The UFC is immediately below the HUD in theF-15. In this simulation
it is your keyboard. You select weapons modes, control the radar, acti-
vate defensive systems, and operate all controls necessary for combat
that are not operated by the CONTROL STICK and THROTTLE. It is
also a backup for the controls activated by the THROTTLE if joystick 2
is not used. The UFC's functions are as follows:
ACTIVATE GUN MODE: Press "G" to arm the guns. When within
1000 feet of your target, press the trigger on the CONTROL STICK to
fire a burst of 25 cannon shells. Gun mode is automatically selected
at the beginning of the simulation and whenever no bombs/missiles
ACT1VATESHORT RANGE MISSILE MODE: Press "S"toarmashort
range, heatseeking Sidewinder missile and lock its seeker head into the
AIR-TO-AIR RETICLE on the HUD. Press the trigger on the CONTROL
STICK to launch the missile when the target is between one half mileand
ten miles away and is within the reticle. You may not launch a missile
until the previous missile has completed its flight.
ACTIVATE MEDIUM RANGE MISSILE MODE: Press "M" to arm
a medium range, radar homing Sparrow missile and lock its homing
device into the AIR-TO-AIR RETICLE on the HUD. Press the trigger
on the CONTROL STICK to launch when target is between 10 and
40 miles away.
ACTIVATE BOMB MODE: Press"B" to arm a stick of three500 pound
bombs and activate the AIR-TO-GROUND RETICLE on the HUD.
Press the trigger to release the "stick" when the BOMB AIMING
RETICLE is inside the target triangle. You should be in a 30 to 40 degree
dive for best results. Release at 2000 feet and pull up immediately.
THROTTLE: Press numbers "0" (55%) through "9" (100% RPM)
for aircraft power and adjustment.
AFTERBURNER: Press "A" to engage. Any throttle command
will cancel. The afterburner increases thrust (and fuel consumption)
by 60 percent over the unaugmented thrust at 100 percent throttle.
SPEEDBRAKE: Press "X" to extend. Any throttle command will
retract. The speedbrake reduces your aircraft's speed to approxi-
mately 75 percent of whatever speed it would have with the speed
DEFENSE AGAINST RADAR HOMING MISSILES: Press "E" to
activate the electronic countermeasures radarjammerandto release
chaff to decoy a radar homing missile. Electronic countermeasures are
effective for a short period of time. They also become less effective each
time they are used.
DEFENSE AGAINST HEATSEEKING MISSILE: Press "F" to release
a flare. The heat of the flare will decoy a heatseeking missile away from
your aircraft. If the heatseeking missile is within range it may explode
on the flare. Flares burn for 5-10 seconds.
DROP EXTERNAL FUEL TANKS: Press "D" to drop your external
fuel tanks when empty (when fuel remaining is lessthan 13,500 pounds)
for extra speed and range.
NAVIGATION CURSOR: Press cursor control keys (see Computer
Chart) to move the cursor.
FRONT OR REAR VIEW: Press the space bar to change from front
to rear view and back again.
BAIL OUT: Press Esc (C64:— ) to eject. You may be rescued and go
on to fly other missions or be captured and end the simulation.
RADAR RANGE: Press "R" to change the range scale of the RADAR-
ELECTRONIC WARFARE DISPLAY.
PAUSE: Press "P" to pause the simulation. Press any other key
1.4. CONTROL STICK
1 .4.1 . Joystick 1 is the CONTROL STICK
It is used to control the altitude of the aircraft andtoactivatetheweapons
— to fire the gun, launch missiles, or drop bombs.
Moving the control stick left or right causes the aircraft to bank and
begin a turn in that direction. Left and right movement is used to maintain
wings level flight and to establish the required bank angle forturning.
Moving the Control Stick forward or back changes the pitch (nose up or
nose down) of the aircraft. This generally results in a climb or descent
with corresponding airspeed changes. See section 2.1 on Basic Flying
for a more detailed discussion of Control Stick movements and effects.
The trigger on the Control Stick is the fire button. Pressing the trigger
will fire the gun, launch an air-to-air missile, or drop a stick of bombs.
Pushing the stick forward pushes the nose of the aircraft down,
(unless the aircraft is inverted, in which case it pushes the nose up.)
Pushing the nose down will cause the aircraft to dive, the altitude
to decrease and the airspeed to increase (unless engine power is
decreased or the speedbrake is extended). CAUTION: If the airspeed
is allowed to climb to the maximum speed for your altitude, your aircraft
may suffer structural failure (usually the separation of a wing or
stabilizer). The speed brake can be used to rapidly reduce speed and
should be used for steep dives, -«— ™— ........ — .
1.4.2. THROTTLE i™. , ..?i i M«[!J
Joystick 2 (optional) is the THROTTLE. It controls engine RPM,
the afterburner, the speedbrake, and the weapons mode. Moving the
THROTTLE forward increases the engine RPM in 10 percent incre-
ments; moving it back decreases the engine RPM in 10 percent incre-
ments. Moving it to the left activates the afterburner; moving it forward
or backward deactivates the afterburner. Moving it to the right extends
the speedbrake; moving it forward orbackward retractsthespeedbrake.
Pressing the trigger on the THROTTLE changes the weapons mode
from GUN to SHORT RANGE MISSILE to MEDIUM RANGE MISSILE
to BOMB and then back to GUN. Note that all Joystick 2 functions may
be performed using the keyboard.
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F-15 STRIKE EAGLE COCKPIT LAYOUT
AIR TO AIR RETICLE
AIR TO GROUND
8. MESSAGE INDICATOR
9. MACH INDICATOR
10. INFRA-RED WARNING
11. F-15 BASE
12. RADAR WARNING
14. SAM MISSILE SITE
15. NAVIGATION CURSOR
16. PRIMARY TARGET
1 7. AIRCRAFT POSITION
18. HORIZONTAL SITUATION
19. FUEL STATUS DISPLAY
20. AIR TARGET DESIGNATOR
21. MISSILE DESIGNATOR 26. FUEL LOW WARNING *
22. GROUND TARGET
23. ENGINE POWER
24. LOW ALTITUDE
25. WEAPONS ARMED
27. WEAPONS STATUS
28. DROP TANK INDICATOR
ATARI SCREEN PICTURE
JOYSTICK # 1
1 . NOSE DOWN
2. BANK RIGHT
3. NOSE UP
4. BANK LEFT
5. WEAPONS TRIGGER
6. INCREASE THROTTLE
JOYSTICK # 2
7. SPEED BRAKES EXTEND
8. DECREASE THROTTLE
9. AFTER BURNERS
10. WEAPONS SELECTOR
U h: .,,:.
1 ■ 9
2.0 FLYING THE F-15
2.1 AIRCRAFT CONTROL
Moving the stick forward or rearward changes the pitch (up or down)
attitude of the aircraft. Pulling back on the stick pulls the nose of the
aircraft up (unless the aircraft is inverted, in which case it pulls the nose
down). Pulling the nose up will cause the aircraft to climb, the altitude
to increase and the airspeed to decrease (unless engine power is
increased). If the airspeed is allowed to fall to thestall speed (100 knots
in level flight at sea level), the aircraft will stall. Therefore, you must add
engine power when climbing to maintain airspeed and to avoid a stall
if the climb is steep and sustained.
Moving the stick to the right or left controls the roll motion of the
aircraft and thus the aircraft's bank angle. For example: a right turn
would be accomplished as follows. 1 ) Move the stick to the right to roll
right. 2) Neutralize the stick when the bank angle is achieved for the
desired rate of turn (the steeper the bank angle the higher the rate of
turn, a 45 degree bank is a normal bank angle). 3) Add throttle to main-
tain airspeed (because of the extra drag created by turning) and be
careful not to stall (stall speed is higher in a turn than in level flight be-
cause of the higher "G" loading on the aircraft). (See section 2.3 for an
explanation of the aerodynamics of a turn.) 4) When you are near the
desired heading, roll to the left until you are level and reduce throttle.
In an aircraft it is necessary to coordinate your ailerons (the control
surfaces in the wings that control bank angle) with your rudders (the
control surfaces in the vertical stabilizers that control yaw — the right
and left movements) and your elevators (the control surfaces in the tail
that control pitch attitude). The F-15 simulator automatically inter-
connects these control surface movements to apply the correct amount
of up elevator to keep the nose from dropping. This permits turns of any
bank angle without the need to pull the stick back to maintain altitude.
Pulling the stick back will raise the nose in a shallow bank and increase
the turn rate in a steep bank.
2.1.2. MISSION PROCEDURE
Once you have the basics of turning, climbing, diving, and level flight,
you are now ready for your first real combat mission. As each mission
begins, you are flying at a medium altitude and a high cruise airspeed
appropriate for combat engagement. When cruising toward a target,
use Cruise Power, 90 percent BPM, to conserve fuel while retaining
sufficient speed to respond to threats.
You should first plan your mission flight path. Use the Horizontal
Situation Display to identify your current position and the location of
your primary target(s). Select a flight path to and from the target. You
may wish to avoid major SAM and Airport concentrations, or you may
select an aggressive flight plan and knock out some of these installa-
tions. You may also decide on a high-altitude penetration to minimize
the effectiveness of SAM missiles, a medium altitude penetration tosave
time, or a low altitude penetration to neutralize radar-guided missiles.
For the more difficult missions you might select a multipleflightstrategy
and return to your base to re-fuel and re-arm as necessary.
When you have determined yourflight plan, placeyourNAVIGATION
CURSOR on the first objective. The STEERING CUE will guide you to
your target. You might climb to 36,000 feet for best speed and range.
Higher altitudes can be used to evade surface-to-air missiles or less
capable enemy aircraft. Or, to avoid surface-to-air missile (SAM)
radars, stay below 1500 feet. However, note that at these low altitudes
turbulence affects your altitude. Don't fly into the ground!
On your way to the target you will need to defend yourself against
heatseeking missiles, radar-guided missiles, and enemy aircraft. Each
of these threats has different flight characteristics and must be dealt
with by appropriate countermeasures. The first requirement is to
identify threats as soon as possible. All missile launches will be reported
by a HUD message. Locate the missile on the Long Range Radar scan.
Use the radar and infra-red warning indicators to identify the missile
as radar-guided or heatseeking. (All air-launched missiles are heat-
seeking; ground-launched missiles may be either heatseeking or
radar-guided.) Enemy aircraft may be identified via the Long Range
Radar or by the appearance of the Target Designator Box.
There are a number of countermeasures available to decoy heat-
seeking missiles. You may turn toward the missile (to present your cold
side to the heatseeker). If this is not effective you may release a flare to
fool the heatseeker into attacking the flare instead of you. Your IR warn-
ing light will indicate the effectiveness of your countermeasure. As a
last resort you may punch up the Short Range Radar Display and try
to out-fly the missile. Rememberthatthe missile is fasterthanyourplane
but you may be able to out-turn the missile in a high-G turn.
If a radar homing missile is approaching your aircraft, press "E" to
activate your radar jammer and to release chaff (radar reflective
material) to fool the radar homing missile into attacking the chaff instead
of you. Activate your countermeasures when the missile is about three
to five miles away, then take evasive action.
The best defense against enemy aircraft is to destroy them before
they come close enough to be a threat. Use a medium range missile for
targets more than 10 miles away. Since the guidance system on the
MRM requires about 10 seconds to acquire the target, you should fire
your missile towards the Target Designator Box. For targets at ranges
of less than 10 miles, use a Short Range Missile. An SRM locks on to the
target immediately and does not require careful aiming. (You may even
fire an SRM at a target behind you with a reasonable hit probability!)
Forclose rangevisual targets, use yourcannon. Notethatyoumustlead
the enemy aircraft to obtain a hit. Although one missile hit will destroy
an enemy aircraft, a couple of gun hits are generally required.
Keep your radar on long range scan unless you are already engaged
and need an uncluttered look at your immediate vicinity. The long
range radar will give you the most warning of threats and ground targets.
Use a 45 degree bank angle for most turns. Establish your desired
heading before climbing steeply because you may lose sight of the
horizon. Use pitch angles of 30 degrees or less to avoid major airspeed
Use a 70-90 degree bank for high turn rate combat maneuvering,
pull back on the stick in a 90 degree bank for the maximum turn rate.
Use the afterburner to maintain airspeed for a sustained high rate turn.
To maximize your probability of a bomb hit, line up for a straight-in
run using the Navigational Cursor and your Long Range Radar. Make
your bombing pass at moderate speed and less than 5000 feet. When
the target triangle appears, begin a shallow dive. As the triangle grows,
maneuver to place your air-to-ground reticle in the middle of the
triangle. Press the trigger (be sure your bombs are armed). Of course
a slow, straight bombing pass leaves you a sitting duck forSAM missiles
and enemy aircraft.
If you do get into trouble and your plane is damaged, your best bet
is to try to return to base for repairs. If this is not possible, bail out;
you have a 50/50 chance of being rescued.
Section 3.0 (Air Combat) provides more detail on combat tactics
and techniques. Good planning, skillful flying, and the proper use of all
of the F-15's sophisticated systems is the key to a successful mission.
This simulation accurately rewards the pilot who masters these skills.
2.2 BASIC AERODYNAMICS
There are four forces acting on an aircraft in flight lift, weight, thrust,
Lift increases with: 1) increased angteofattack(theanglebetweenthe
wing and the aircraft's flight path) up to the maximum angle of which the
wing is capable without stalling; 2) increased air density (air is denser
at lower altitude); and 3) the square of an increase in airspeed (at twice
the airspeed a wing will produce four times as much lift). Weight
decreases as fuel is burned and as missiles and bombs are released.
At constant throttle, thrust increases with increased airspeed
(because of the ram effect of high speed air entering the engine, rais-
ing its pressure even before it enters the engine's compressor) and
decreases with increased altitude (because the air is less dense). Drag
increases with the square of an increase in airspeed (form drag, created
by the aircraft's cross section forcing its way through the air and by skin
friction) and with increased angle of attack (induced drag, created by
the pressure differential between the low pressure air above the wing
and the high pressure air below the wing that generates lift); drag
decreases with increased altitude (because the less dense air offers
HIGH SPEED LOW ANGLE OF ATTACK
ANfciLt I 1
LOW SPEED HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK
When lift equals weight and thrust equals drag, the aircraft's altitude
and airspeed will remain constant — the aircraft is in equalibrium. If lift
isincreased or weight reduced, the aircraft will climb; if lift is reduced
it will descend. If thrust is increased, the airspeed will increase; if thrust
is decreased or drag increased, the airspeed will decrease.
Lift acts perpendicular to the wing; weight acts vertically, straight
down. When an aircraft banks in order to turn, lift acts at an angle to
In a bank, part of the lift acts to the side, providing the turning force,
and the rest of the lift acts vertically, to oppose the aircraft's weight. To
maintain altitude in a turn, the vertical component of lift must equal the
aircraft's weight. Since part of the lift is acting to the side, the total lift
must exceed that required for level flight. At steep bank angles, total
lift must be several times larger than in level flight forthe vertical compo-
nent of lift to oppose the aircraft's weight. (At 60 degrees of bank,
2G's or twice the normal lift is required to hold level flight).
I n a turn, lift is increased by increasing the angleof attack. This is done
by pulling back on the stick. In a sustained turn, the pilot can remove
the stick force necessary to maintain the proper angle of attack by
"trimming" the controls to provide the necessary back pressure on the
stick. In this simulation, the appropriate trim is automatically applied,
relieving you of the need to apply back pressure in a turn to maintain
altitude. In a shallow bank, pulling back on the stick will primarily
cause the nose to pitch up; in a steep bank, it will primarily increase
the turn rate.
Increasing the angle of attack increases drag, increases the G force
on the aircraft (as the total lift increases above the amount necessary
to oppose and thus support the aircraft's weight in level flight, 1 G), and
increases stall speed (the minimum speed at which the wing generates
significant lift) by the square root of the G force (stall speed is doubled
in a 4G turn). To avoid stalling and spinning out of control in a steep
bank, you must maintain an airspeed above the stall speed foryourbank
angle and altitude (stall speed increases with increased altitude because
the less dense air has less lifting capacity). In steep turns, full throttle
or even afterburner may be required to maintainaltitudewithoutstalling.
2.3. TURNING PERFORMANCE
One of the most important performance attributes of a fighter aircraft
is its rate of turn. A rate of turn higher than that of youropponentenables
you to turn with and lead youropponent for agun or missile attack and to
prevent him from leading you if he is behind you in a turn. You lead a
target by aiming in front of it so that your bullets or missile and the target
arrive at the same point in space at the same time.
, -j F D
-. -" A 1 P
An aircraft's turn rate increases with bank angle (and therefore with
G force) and decreases with altitude (because the less dense air has less
capacity to produce the high lift needed to steep banking turns). At low
altitude in asteepturn,theturnrateincreasesasairspeed increases from
stall speed to approximately Mach 0.8, then it decreases sharply. At
higher altitudes, the maximum turn rate is less, is reached at a higher
speed, and does not decrease as sharply with increased speed. Best
turning performance is always below Mach 1.0, and generally is in the
Mach 0.8, 500 knot range.
IMNCJWWOSWBOTOOlKWiOOIMO HOC 1200 I30Q I WO
2.4. PERFORMANCE ENVELOPE
An aircraft's performance envelope is the boundary that separates
the airspeed/altitude combinations where it can fly from those where
it cannot fly. The larger the envelope, the more capable the aircraft.
The aircraft's minimum speed (Vmin) is governed by the ability of its
wings to generate lift at high angles of attack — this is the"lift limit" of the
envelope. At higher altitudes, Vmin decreases because the less dense
air has less capacity to support the weight of the aircraft and flight, and
therefore requires a greater angle of attack. At any given altitude, Vmin
increases with increased bank angle because of the extra lift that must
be generated not only to overcome the aircraft's weight but also to
provide a large turning force.
The top of the performance envelope indicates the aircraft's service
ceiling. It is limited by the ability of the engines and wings to produce
sufficient thrust and lift to keep the aircraft flying. The right side of the
performance envelope indicates the aircraft's maximum speed (Vmax).
The maximum speed at altitudes over 36,000 feet is limited by the ability
of the engines to generate thrust in the th in ai r of high altitudes in excess
of drag; this is the "thrust limit." An aircraft's maximum possible speed
generally increases with increased altitude up to 36,000 feet. This is
because up to this altitude, as altitude increases, air temperature and
density fall in such a proportion that thrust decreases less than drag.
Above 36,000 feet, air density continues to fall but air temperature
remains constant, resulting in a greater decrease in thrust than in drag.
At altitudes below 36,000 feet, maximum speed is limited by the
structural strength of the aircraft; this is the "strength limit." Exceeding
the Vmax speed for your altitude below 36,000 feet will result in the
destruction of your aircraft. CAUTION: You must reduce engine power
and sometimes extend your speedbrake to avoid exceeding Vmax in
3.0 AIR COMBAT
3.1 . THE PHASES OF AIR COMBAT
3.1.1 DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION
Early detection and positive identification are the keys to surprise, and
surprise is the most important contributor to success in air combat.
Aircraft (and SAM sites) that emit radar signals may be detected by your
Radar Warning Receiver (RWR), which alerts you to their presence by
lighting the first warning indicator on the instrument panel. The hot
exhausts of air or ground launched missiles may be detected by your
l n f ra - rec j Warning Receiver (IRWR), which alerts you to their presence
by lighting the second warning indicator on the instrument panel.
Your search and tracking radar detects all aircraft up to 60 degreestothe
right or left of your flight path and out to 160 miles. Ai rcraft and missiles
detected by your RWR, IRWR, or radar are displayed on the RADAR-
ELECTRONIC WARFARE DISPLAY on the instrument panel.
Radar targets may be identified as friendly or hostile electronically,
and visual targets may be identified based on the shape of the aircraft.
In this simulation, however, all aircraft are hostile and there is no need
to identify before engaging. You should, therefore, try to detect hostile
aircraft and missiles as far away from your aircraft as possible. You can
do this by keeping your radar on the long range scale (unless it is neces-
sary to use the greater resolution of the medium or short range scales
to locate close in targets and threats) and continuously scanning the
RADAR-ELECTRONIC WARNING DISPLAY for threats.
3.1 .2. ATTACK
Once a target has been detected, the attack is planned based on the flight
characteristics and offensive and defensive weapons systems of your
aircraft, and on the hostile aircraft and the tactical situation. Youraircraft
is at least as maneuverable and fast as any adversary aircraft. Some
adversary aircraft have performance and weapons systems similar to
your F-1 5, so you generally will not enjoy a significant advantage based
solely on your aircraft. Therefore, your analysis of and response to the
tactical situation is the key to success
When you detect a hostile aircraft at long range (over 10 miles), make
a Medium Range Missile attack. If the target is heading toward you,
launch the missile at a rangeof30 miles, If thetargetisflyingacrossyour
flight path, launch at 20 miles. If it is flying away from you, launch at
10 miles. If you launch at a greater distance, your missile will run out of
propellant before it reaches the target. If you launch atashorterdistance
the radar homing system will not be fully effective when the missile
reaches the target.
When you detect a target at medium range (1000 feet to 10 miles),
make a Short Range Missile attack. A stern shot is most effective
because the heat of the target aircraft's engine exhaust will present
the best target. Do not fire when the sun is behind the target.
When you engage a target at short range (less than 1000 feet), the
gun is most effective. Your closing speed from astern should be about
50 knots, and not more than 150 knots to avoid overshooting your target.
A head-on attack may be made at longer range, up to two miles.
3.1.5 MANEUVER AND DISENGAGEMENT
The first principle of air combat maneuver is energy management. An
aircraft at a given altitude and airspeed has an amount of energy equal
to the sum of its potential energy (which is proportional to its altitude)
and its kinetic energy (which is proportional to the square of its speed).
Total energy is increased by increasing engine thrust and is reduced by
increasing drag (from steep bank orclimb angles orfrom extending the
speedbrake). You may convert potential energy (altitude) into kinetic
energy (airspeed) by diving, and you may convert kinetic energy into
potential energy by climbing.
Maintaining a high cruise speed (Mach .9) enables you to climb
quickly by pitching up; flying at high altitude enables you to accelerate
quickly to high speed by diving. Maintain your energy for greatest
3.2 AIR COMBAT MANEUVERS
In the maneuver phase of air combat, the attacker seeks to stay behind
the defender and to get into position for effective use of his weapons.
The defender seeks to disengage or to reverse roles and get behind
the attacker. Some common offensive and defensive maneuvers are
3.2.1 OFFENSIVE AIR COMBAT MANEUVERS
HIGH SPEED YOYO: Use when the defender breaks (rolls into a steep
bank and turns rapidly) and your speed is too high for you to stay on
the inside of his turn to lead him properly (aim ahead of his position),
Reduce your bank angle, pull up into a steep climb, roll inverted over
the top of a half loop. When you are in a dive, roll to a steep bank in
the direction of the turn, then pull up to a level turn behind the defender
and inside his turn.
LOW SPEED YOYO: Use when you are unable to close within gun range
in level flight because the target is as fast as your aircraft.
Push the nose over into a shallow dive, trading altitude for airspeed
and gaining on thetarget. When you are belowthe target, pull upand fire.
LAG PURSUIT: Use when the defender breaks and your closing speed
is too high for you to turn with him.
Maintain your higher speed and your position behind the target, but
slide outside his turn, with the same turn rate as the target (in degrees
per second), but with a larger turn radius. Be prepared to shoot if he
reverses in front of you and be prepared to follow him into a spiral dive.
position yourself above
the defender or in the
proper relation to
a ground target.
Pull up into a vertical
climb, roll when flying
vertically to place yourself
in the desired plane of
flight, pull back on the
stick until you are in level
flight inverted, and then
3.2.2 DEFENSIVE AIR COMBAT MANEUVERS
BREAK: Use when an attacker is close behind you with some closing
Roll 90 degrees into the attack (roll to the left if the attacker is on your
left) and pull back on the stick to achieve a maximum rate of turn. This
will force the attacker to make a maximum angle deflection shot and
possible to overshoot and fly in front of you. You may use the speed-
brake briefly to encourage an overshoot, but be careful not to lose
too much energy.
REVERSE AND SCISSORS: Use when your break forces the attacker
to overshoot and fly in front of you.
With full power, quickly reverse your turn by rolling into a 90 degree
bank in the opposite direction from your break. This may position you
behind the attacker. You and the attacker may continue to reverse until
one of you is in firing position behind the other or disengages.
JINKING: Use when the attacker is within gun range but with little
Go to full throttle and afterburner, pull back on the stick briefly, then
roll to a different angle and push forward on the stick briefly. Continue
this until the attacker has dropped back farenoughforyou to disengage.
SPIRAL DIVE: Use to disengage when ail else has failed, or when you
have no remaining offensive weapons.
Maintain the maximum rate of turn (with a 90+ degree bank) in a dive
steep enough to maintain a minimum airspeed of 450 knots.
SPLIT S: Use to disengage.
Roll inverted and pull into a vertical dive, then pull out in the opposite
direction. Do not exceed maximum speed.
3.2.3. BOMBING TECHNIQUES
DIVE BOMB: Use when flying at medium altitude (4000 to 6000 feet).
Press "B" to arm a stick of bombs and activate the AIR-TO-GROUND
RETICLE on the HUD. Maneuver the aircraft to place the target directly
ahead of you. When the target is on the AIR-TO-GROUND RETICLE,
roll inverted and pull the nose down (if at 6000 feet), or push the nose'
down (if at 4000 feet) to approximately 30 degrees below the horizon,
place the reticle on the target, then roll upright if inverted, keeping the
reticle on the target. Release bombs at 2000 feet and pull up immediately.
POP UP: Use when at low altitude (below 1000 feet).
Line up on the target and pull up to 45 degrees above the horizon.
Roll inverted at 3000 feet, pull the nose down to 30 degrees below the
horizon, place the reticle on the target, then roll upright, keeping the
reticle on the target. Release bombs at 2000 feet and pull up immediately.
3.3 THREATS ( Ml* HllClUl'l)
MIKOYAN/GUREVICH MiG-21: (Fishbed)
TYPE: Single-seat day fighter.
MAXIMUM SPEED: 1200 knots at 36,000 feet,
Mach 2.1; 700 knots at sea level, Mach 1.06.
STALL SPEED: 140 knots.
SERVICE CEILING: 60,000 feet.
RADAR: 16 mile range.
THREAT DETECTION: RWR.
ARMAMENT: 23mm gun; four AA-2 Atoll
'- -■>■■» tJ I 13
MIKOYAN/GUREVICH MiG-23: (Flogger)
TYPE: Single-seat, all-weather air superiority
fighter with secondary ground attack role.
MAXIMUM SPEED: 1 260 knots at 36,000 feet;
Mach 2.2; 730 knots at sea level, Mach 1.1.
STALL SPEED: Estimated 100 knots.
SERVICE CEILING: 50,000 feet.
RADAR: 50 mile search range,
30 mile tracking range.
THREAT DETECTION: RWR, IRWR.
COUNTERMEASURES: Active radar jammer,
ARMAMENT: 23mm gun; four AA-2 Atolllheatseeking missiles, or AA-7 Apex
heatseeking or radar homing missiles.or AA-8 Aphid heatseeking missiles.
SUKHOI Su-22: (Fitter-C)
TYPE: Single-seat, all-weather, fighter-bomber.
MAXIMUM SPEED: 1380 knots at 36,000 feet,
Mach 2.4; 750 knots at sea level, Mach 1.06.
STALL SPEED: 140 knots.
SERVICE CEILING: 60,000 feet.
RADAR: No search radar.
THREAT DETECTION: RWR
COUNTERMEASURES: Chaff, flares.
ARMAMENT: 30mm gun; four AA-2 Atoll heatseeking missiles, or AA-7 Apex
heatseeking or radar homing missiles, or AA-8 Aphid heatseeking missiles.
3.3.2 SURFACE TO AIR MISSILES
TYPE: Ground radar guided.
SLANT RANGE: 20 miles
SPEED: Mach 3.5.
ALTITUDE: 60,000 feet.
TYPE: Ground radar-guided and semi-active
radar homing in terminal phase.
SLANT RANGE: 30 miles.
SPEED: Mach 2.5.
ALTITUDE: 80,000 feet.
TYPE: Hand-held, infra-red.
SLANT RANGE: 5 miles.
SPEED: Estimated Mach 2.
ALTITUDE: 32,000 feet.
The F-15 STRIKE EAGLE simulation contains seven missions. Once
you have successfully completed one mission, you may fly the next
mission, which is more challenging. To complete a mission you must
destroy all primary targets and return to your base. You may return to
base before destroying all targets in orderto refuel, repair damage, and
reload weapons. The later missions are more challenging because they
have more targets and more capable enemy aircraft and SAMs.
4.1 MISSION: LIBYA August 19, 1981 .
SITUATION: A U.S. Navy task force including the carrier Nimitz isconducting exercises
in the Gulf of Sidra off trie coast of Libya. Libyan aircraft have made numerous harass-
ment flights towards the task force in support of their claim to the Gulf as territorial
waters. The U.S. disputes this claim.
FLIGHT PLAN: 1 ) Daylime, climb to 10,000 feet and fly combat air patrol station;
2) if attacked, engage Libyan aircraft and bomb the air command center (primary target)
and airfields; 3) return to base.
THREATS: MiG-21; MiG-23; Su-22.
SIMULATION: You have been attacked by a Su-22 firing a heatseeking missile.
MISSION 2: EGYPT
October 6, 1973.
SITUATION: The Egyptian
Army launches the YomKippur
attack across the Suez Canal.
Intelligence has located the
Third Army command center.
Numerous SAM sites protect
the Egyptian front lines and
rear areas. The Egyptian Air
Force is sliil active. A risky
attack mission has been
ordered lo disrupl the Third
FLIGHT PLAN: 1)Pene1rate
air defenses; 2) bomb the
command center primary
target; 3) bomb as many air-
fields and SAM sites as pos-
sible; 4) return to base.
THREATS: MiG-21; MiG-23;
SA-7 (heatseeking SAMs only)
SIMULATION: You are aooroaching the Suez Canal,
you are attacked by a MiG-21 fighter.
April 15, 1972.
SITUATION: After a four year
pause, the U.S. resumes in-
tensive bombing of North
Vietnamese targets, including
military and industrial targets
around the port of Haiphong.
During the pause, North
Vietnamese defenses have
been strengthened with radar
guided Surface-to-Air missiles
and flak batteries. The North
Vietnamese air forces are still
small. You have been ordered
to undertake a precision night
FLIGHT PLAN: 1 ) Night, pene-
trate air defenses at 1000 feet
oral high altitude; 2) bomb two
primary targets, rail yards, in
harbor area; 3} bomb as many
SAM sites as possible and any
airports if the opportunity
arises; 4) return to base.
THREATS: SA-2 and SA-3
radar homing SAMs.
GULF OF TONKIN
SIMULATION: You are approaching the coast of
>>..—..■■.■,————««» Ill -*-' I I J
MISSION 4: SYRIA
March 12, 1984.
SITUATION: Modern SAM-9
missiles are being deployed
by the Syrian army. These
dangerous missiles must be
identified and destroyed
before they become effective.
Smaller SAM installations
protect these siles as well as
Syrian air patrols.
FLIGHT PLAN: 1 ) Daytime,
overfly the Lebanese-Syrian
border and identify SAM-9
emplacements; 2) if attacked
engage the enemy and bomb
the air command center;
3) bomb any SAM sites that fire
on you or any air bases that
launch aircraft against you;
4) return to base.
THREATS: MiG-21 ; MiG-23;
SA-2 and SA-3 radar homing
and SA-7 heatseeking SAMs.
SIMULATION: You have been
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MISSION 5: HANOI
May 10, 1972.
photographs have identified
two high priority ground
targets deep inside North
Vietnam. Defenses include
SAM sites and air patrols.
A high speed fighter-bomber
penetration raid has been
FLIGHT PLAN: 1) Night, bomb
both primary targets, oil storage
depots: 2} bomb SAM sites
and airfields in the area;
3) return to base.
THREATS: MiG-21 ; MiG-23
SIMULATION: You are
approaching the coast of
* 4> < ^Jt~
Hi ■ ■< Jlgy
GULF OF TONKIN
MISSION 6: IRAQ
June 7, 1981.
SITUATION: The Iraqi nucleai
reactor complex, capable of
producing weapons grade
nuclear material, is neartng
completion. A secret strike
is planned to eliminate this
FLIGHT PLAN: 1 ) Penetrate
air defenses below 1500 feet
to avoid radar detection;
2) bomb reactor; 3) bomb
any SAM sites or air bases
that could endanger this or
a follow-up mission; 4) return
THREATS: SA-2 and SA-3
radar homing and SA-7 heat-
SIMULATION: You are
approaching the border
* _ IRAQ
SITUATION: Iranian aircraft
have been attacking vital
Persian Gulf shipping and
Saudi Arabian shore installa-
tions. Your mission is to patrol
the Gulf and intercept hostile
FLIGHT PLAN: 1) If attacked,
engage enemy aircraft;
2) penetrate airspace at
medium altitude; 3) bomb
primary targets; 4) bomb SAM
sites and airbases endanger-
ing this or follow-up missions;
4) return to base.
SA-4 and SA-6 high perform
ance radar homing and SA-7
SIMULATION: You are
approaching an Iranian
Jk E5f HUH
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